December 27, 2016

Do This, Not That: 7 Literacy Practices to Ditch and How to Replace Them

We've all done it, reflected back on something we used to do while teaching that we would never do again.  When I look back at some of the teaching practices I've used, it literally makes me cringe.  Does it mean we were bad teachers?  No.  I'm a believer that teachers always do the best they can do for their students with the resources and knowledge they have at the time.  Isn't it a beautiful thing that we live in a world where we can continuously learn, gain new knowledge, and make changes to improve ourselves?  That's what this blog post it all about.  How can you ditch some commonly-used literacy practices that can be replaced with practices that will serve you and your students better?


#1: Whole Class Novels

Why we should ditch it:  When all students are reading the same book, at the same pace, with the same purpose, troubles are sure to arise.  What about your advanced student who could read the entire book in one night's sitting (and probably will)?  That student will spend the next several weeks in sheer boredom, recalling what he or she read on that fateful evening where they finished the class novel, in one night...  On the other end, what about your lowest readers who are not capable of reading the book by themselves?  They will be forever behind, unable to participate in the reading discussion and/or answer the book questions.  Another interesting thing happens when teachers teach whole-class novels.  They let the novel become the center of teaching and lose sight of the only point of a whole class novel: teaching reading.  It's easy to worry more about if students understand what's going on in one book than if students are using reading behaviors to process their reading.

What to replace it with:  Replace whole class novels with a combination of interactive read aloud, guided reading, literature circles, and independent reading.  The interactive read aloud will give you that whole-class book experience and a common reference point for modeling reading behaviors and thinking during Reading Workshop minilessons.  Guided reading and literature circles will provide small group reading instruction differentiated to students' reading levels and reading preferences.  Ditching whole-class novels will also free up time for independent reading, where students can spend time with books they love and want to read.  For more information about using these Reading Workshop practices in combination, check out this blog post.



#2: Isolated Grammar Exercises

Why we should ditch it: The only logical reason to teach students about grammar is so that they can use it correctly in their writing.  That's it.  I teach my students grammar so that they can improve their writing conventions so that their writing is understandable, clear, and grammatically correct.  I used to teach grammar using predictable, scripted sentences.  Doing grammar exercises with my students felt like doing math.  And you know what?  It felt great!  There was a right answer, a wrong answer, a predictable pattern, and all those other things black-and-white-thinking people love.  But then this thing happened, and my students would do a piece of writing, and that isolated, predictable grammar rule didn't play nice in real-person writing.  It wasn't recognizable in the books my students read.  It was pretty much pointless.  I had created grammar exercise experts who couldn't write a grammatically-correct sentence.

What to replace it with:  When working with students on grammar, I prefer not to refer to it as grammar at all.  Instead, I teach from the perspective of learning how to write using correct writing conventions.  This already gets students' brains to make the connection that the sole purpose for learning about grammar is so that we can transfer our learning to writing.  The next difference is to use mentor sentences from novels and students' writing.  Messy sentences that aren't always completely clear, but they teach students that writing is messy, and writers are problem-solvers, not rule-followers.  Mentor sentences can be used to name and practice grammar rules.  They can also be used to have students mimic mentor sentences in their writing.  Another practice I love is to teach students a grammar rule and have them look through their writing or independent reading book for a sentence that exemplifies this rule.  For more on mentor sentences, check out this blog post.



#3: Teaching "Books"

Why we should ditch it:  When someone asks you what type of teacher you are, you don't say, "I'm a book teacher."  Chances are, you refer to yourself as a Reading Teacher.  However, if I would have been speaking accurately early on in my teaching career, I would have defined myself as a "Book Teacher."  A book teacher gives out worksheets on every chapter with questions like, "What happened to Jonas on page 5 when...."  These worksheets are followed up by chapter quizzes with similar questions.  Teachers who teach books are more concerned that students know what's going on in a book than what type of thinking students are doing while reading the book.  The problem with being a "Book Teacher" is students end up learning more about (you guessed it) the book over learning about reading skills.  We are not preparing our students to be able to answer every trivia question about Huckleberry Finn, we're teaching them how readers think while reading any book.

What to replace it with:  Reading teachers teach reading behaviors and ask students to apply that thinking to books.  Reading minilessons taught should center around the strategic reading actions: solving words, summarizing, reading fluently, predicting, inferring, making connections, synthesizing, analyzing, and critiquing.  My favorite place to go when creating reading minilessons is Fountas and Pinnell's The Continuum of Literacy Learning.  An example of a reading minilesson focused on one specific reading behavior that students could apply to their independent reading book is, "Readers consider characters' decisions so that they can infer why characters made the decisions they did."  The guided reading tab breaks down the different strategic actions into individual reading skills.  Good reading teachers also make sure that their questioning during interactive read aloud and guided reading covers within, beyond, and about the text questions as well.






#4: Assigning Writing

Why we should ditch it:  Assigning writing means that we tell students what we want them to write and then ask them to do it.  It happens all the time.  Teachers tell students, "I want you to write a three paragraph reaction to what just happened in the book."  For many students, this is highly stressful and unattainable.  Even for many adults, the thought of being asked to write pretty much anything can bring a high level of anxiety.  So as adults, what do we do when we're asked to write a cover letter for a job we're applying for?  We go on the Internet, and we find examples of successful cover letters and read tips about what to include in a cover letter.  We find resources to show us a model and give us tips for writing pretty much anything we're asked to write as adults.  So why do we expect students to write "cold" at the snap of our fingers once we ask them to write something?  Assigning writing is easy initially, but teachers who assign writing versus teaching writing probably notice the following from their student writers: an unwillingness to get started, refusal to do the writing assignment at all, a final product that does not fit the writing that was assigned, and/or a piece of writing with minimal effort.

What to replace it with:  Like adult writers, students need a writing target.  Mentor texts are perfect for providing students with a model of what the final writing destination looks like.  For even the shortest, simplest writing assignments, I use mentor texts.  Most of the time, the mentor texts are my writing.  Providing this target sets expectations high, makes them clear, and helps students with the hardest part of writing: getting started.  Doing my own writing assignments also allows me to give students insights while teacher and monitor if the writing assignment is even worthy of giving in the first place.  Taking writing assignments and breaking them down step-by-step is another great strategy to teaching a short or long writing assignment.  Sometimes the task of a piece of writing can be completely overwhelming, but like anything, if students are taken through it one step at a time, they are much more likely to feel successful.  More tips for teaching writing can be found here.



#5: Round Robin Reading, Popcorn Reading, Etc.

Why we should ditch it:  Round robin, popcorn reading, or any other related reading practice means students are taking turns reading the same text out loud while other students reading the same text are following along.  One problem with this practice is students have to sit and listen to students who have different fluency levels than them.  This interrupts the reading flow and fluency for each individual student.  Many students also struggle with comprehension during round robin reading because they're experiencing anxiety over the thought of reading out loud and the reading is so disconjointed that they can't concentrate on the meaning.  Another problem is that in order for students to grow as readers, they need to process texts independently.  If a coach wanted their basketball team to improve, he or she would have all of his/her players work on dribbling, shooting, passing, defense, and endurance.  The coach wouldn't run the practice with everyone sitting on the bench and then ask one player at a time to go out on the court to do a drill while everyone else sat and watched her.  This is just silly.  So is popcorn reading for this very same reason.

What to replace it with:  There are many great alternatives to popcorn reading.  What you choose to have your students do and when is going to depend entirely on the purpose for their reading and the type of instructional context you're using.  One alternative to round robin reading includes having students read independently so that they're able to process the text, work on their fluency, and problem-solve as they read.  Another alternative is a teacher read aloud where students listen to the teacher read the text out loud and hear a model of fluent, properly-phrased reading while working on their listening comprehension.  In small group reading contexts, a great alternative to popcorn reading includes partner reading with PALS principles where students take turns being the "coach" and "reader."  The coach listens and follows along with the reading and tells the reader to stop when a reading mistake is made and reread.  Students can take turns being the coach and the reader, and this can be a great practice used for a portion of reading with the rest of reading done independently.  Using fluency drills is another great way to intentionally have students work on what teachers want students to do through popcorn reading: reading out loud.  An example of one of the fluency drills I use in small group reading instruction or intervention is selecting a paragraph and doing an Echo Read.  I read a sentence and students in the group echo that sentence using the same expression, pausing, intonation, and pronunciations that I used.  We repeat this process until we make our way through the paragraph.  Next, I have students turn to a partner and take turns reading that same paragraph out loud to one another.  I truly believe teachers who use round robin reading want their students to have better fluency, but a targeted fluency drill in a small group setting like this will do so much more than round robin reading will ever do to improve the reading fluency of your students.



#6: Using Lexiles to Limit Reading Choices for Students

Why we should ditch it:  A lexile is a scientific measure of where students are at as readers at one point in time.  The lexile level of a book is also determined scientifically.  As we know as readers, the complexity of a book goes beyond how hard the words in a book are and the length of its sentences.  Yes, these things are a piece, but book complexity is also about the themes of a book, the point of view, the plot structure, the literacy devices used, and the background knowledge needed to understand the content.  That's why sending students down to the library with a lexile number written on a piece of paper and instructing them to select a book based on if their lexile level matches the lexile of a book they want to read just doesn't match up.  Students with high lexiles end up with minimal choices of books that are "challenging" enough for them, and students with low lexiles longingly stare at the book they wish they could read as we slowly kill their love of reading and self-confidence as a reader.  I don't know about you, but I don't walk into Barnes & Noble and select books I want to buy based on my lexile score.  Why would we do this to our students?

What to replace it with: We must teach students how to begin reading a book and monitor if it's a book that they're able to comprehend.  Is the book too hard, too easy, or just right?  Teach them how to be Goldilocks in the world of books.  What do readers do if a book is too hard or too easy?  These are other conversations and lessons we must work with students on.  Interest and background knowledge in a particular series, author, or topic cannot be ignored.  Interest and background knowledge can allow a student with a lexile significantly below the book's lexile to be able to read the book with success.  Students are so much more than a number, and it's our job to teach students what readers do when finding reading material and giving them the free will to decide what their independent reading material will be.  Will there be students who read books that are way too hard that they don't understand?  Yes!  Will there be students who read way too easy of books in order to slack off?  Yes!  These instances though are perfect teaching moments and conversations for reading conferences as we teach and talk with students about what it means to be readers.



#7: Teacher Lectures

Why we should ditch it:  As teachers, we think what we have to say is pretty important.  How are students supposed to learn unless we're telling them what we need them to learn?  If we're not talking, we're not teaching.  Right?  Wrong!  When we find ourselves up in front of the classroom talking at students for any longer than 10-15 minutes, we have a problem.  Our problem is that our students are going to look like the picture below.  If they don't look that way, we have a very polite group of students who look this way on the inside.  There are so many better ways to get students to retain information than lecturing.  If you hear yourself saying a warning to students or justifying your long lesson to a colleague with something like, "I know I talked way too long, but I just had to get through..." then you need to take a look inside and ask yourself how you're going to fix your long-winded ways.

What to replace it with:  One reason your time in front of students talking is too long could be because you're trying to teach way too much at a time.  Ask yourself if your minilesson topic for the day is truly mini.  If it's more along the lines of a mega-lesson with multiple steps you're asking students to take, break it down and cover it over the course of several days.  Another way to lessen your time in front of the class is to incorporate more small group and individual teaching in the form of guided reading, literature circles, reading conferences, guided writing, and writing conferences.  I promise you that the time you spend with small groups and individual students will be so much more valuable than the time you spend in front of the entire class.  One last tip for decreasing the teacher talk is to increase opportunities for focused student talk.  Building turn and talks and student small group discussion with focus questions and talking topics is a great way to get students actively engaged in the lesson.




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October 26, 2016

Favorite Beginning of the Year Foundation Lessons


When it comes to teaching reading and writing to middle school students, it's overwhelming to know where to start with what to teach them.  Below I'm going to recap a few of my favorite lessons to teach within the first two months of the school year.

Lesson One: Selecting Independent Reading Material

The way I run Reading Workshop rests on doing a daily reading minilesson following the gradual release of responsibility (modeling, have-a-go, application, share).  During that application time, students are expected to apply the concept from the minilesson for the day to their independent reading book.  If students are "fake reading" and have no idea what's going on in their book or flat out don't have an independent reading book, how are they supposed to complete the minilesson?

One common mistake we make at the beginning of the school year is that we jump right into content without laying down a foundation for reading.  In order to create a reading culture in your classroom, here are a few things to try:

1.  Have a minilesson focused solely on selecting engaging independent reading material.  This year, I did the minilesson application on Google Classroom.  Students explored sites like "Good Reads" and "What Should I Read Next" and wrote down book titles that interested them.  We also started a collaborative class Google Doc where each student added a book recommendation.  In the past, I have let students just go down to the library to pull any random book off the shelf as their next IR book and hope for the best.  Why am I not surprised when that same student comes up to me three days later and says they're going to abandon their current independent reading book....again.  Now, before I will even sign a pass to the library, students have to show me their "Book I Want to Read" list in their Reader's Notebook with the book they intend to checkout.  If students don't have a specific book in mind, I ask them to go to Google Classroom and spend a little time on the websites previously mentioned looking for a specific idea.



Lesson Two: Establish What Independent Reading and Writing Looks Like

In order for students to become better readers and writers, they must have time to read and write.  If you don't give them that time during class, the world of sports, friends, and technology is going to take over after school.  The reading and writing more than likely is not going to happen as consistently as we would want it to.  Independent reading and writing can't happen in your class is clear expectations aren't set collaboratively, practiced, reflected on, and reinforced daily.  Trust me, it is a battle you want to fight and win because not only do students need this time to become better readers and writers, I need this time with them to be holding reading and writing conferences and guided reading and guided writing small groups.  Some of my students will learn when I am teaching a whole class minilesson, but where I am truly going to make a difference is during small group and individualized instruction.  If this instruction can never happen because I have to play reading and writing police, then this is a tragic loss of prime instructional time for my students.  Taking the time to make sure independent reading and writing expectations are crystal clear is never a waste of time.


Lesson Three: Teach Students How to Be Sentence Stalkers

The foundation of how I run Word Study in my classroom, which encompasses grammar, writing conventions, vocabulary, spelling, etc. is through the sentence stalking of sentences from our current interactive read aloud.  I don't waste a day of school before I have students learn how to be sentence stalkers.  Word Study is on the board when students walk into class, so it's the first thing they do every single day.  Teaching students how to look at the writer's craft of what goes into writing a sentence can impact students in how they read and how they write.




Lesson Four: Citing Textual Evidence and Quality Reading Response

The first type of writing I have my students do is in response to their reading.  We call this type of writing "Writing about Reading."  These responses at the beginning of the year tend to be filled with vague ideas not supported with what's actually going on in the book.  This year, my team of 8th grade LA teachers and I bit the bullet and taught how to add in and cite textual evidence extremely early on in the school year.  We specifically focused on how to introduce textual evidence, how to cite it correctly, and how to explain the ideas.  I don't regret it one bit, not even a little.  Teaching this writing skill right away saved me from seemingly endless hours of reading Writing about Reading responses with vague references to reading.  Now that we're writing a research paper in Writing Workshop, it's also pretty awesome that students are connecting adding in textual evidence to adding in specific research.








The above picture is a shared writing that I did with my reading intervention group in response to the book, Crow Call, by Lois Lowry.  Getting the opportunity to work with six students consistently in a small group on specific skills they need as readers and writers is a true gift!

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August 23, 2016

5 Tips for Your Classroom Library

A classroom library is the heart of any classroom not just for elementary teachers, but for middle school teachers, too!  Below you will find some tips in how to set up, maintain, and use your classroom library across the school year.

Tip One: Organize with Book Bins by Genre, Author, and Topic

The days of a classroom library meaning taking a bunch of books and sticking them on a shelf are over.  It's time to invest in some plastic bins and organize books into categories.  The categories I use in my classroom library are mostly by genre, but I also use author and topics.  Here are some ideas of book bin titles below.

-Realistic Fiction
-Historical Fiction
-Science Fiction
-Fantasy
-Nonfiction
-Biography
-Popular Authors (Gary Paulson, Walter Dean Myers, Kate DiCamillo, etc.)
-Books in a Series
-Sports Realistic Fiction
-Adventure/Survival Realistic Fiction
-Mystery Realistic Fiction
-Dog Realistic Fiction

Organizing by categories will help students quickly and easily find the bin that suites their interests and be able to access a book they want to read.  We all have those students that grab the first book they see from a library stacked with books with no order.  This way, students like that who may still grab a book quickly will probably grab from a bin from a genre they will read.  A quick organization tip to keep the library organized this way is to write the category name on the inside front cover or use different colored stickers to represent different genres for easy book return to the correct bin.



Tip Two: Have Students Interact with the Classroom Library

Half the battle of being a teacher is remembering to do all of the simple ideas stored up in your mind from Pinterest, reading education blogs, watching other teachers teach, etc.  One simple idea for getting students to interact with the classroom library is to give a different group of 2-3 students 5 minutes at the beginning of independent reading time each day to browse the classroom library.  My students have their "Books I Want to Read" list in their Reader's Notebooks, so they can take their Reader's Notebooks back to the classroom library and jot down book titles they're interested in reading next as they browse.  I have students do this even when they have a current independent reading book.  I want my students to be continuous readers who move fluently from one independent reading book to the next.  By giving them time to consider books they want to read in the future, this ensures we will avoid the in-between books lull that is associated with off-task behaviors during independent reading time.


Tip Three: Avoid Levels

There are so many reading assessments out there: F&P Benchmark Assessment, DRA, QRI, Lexile, STAR, MAPS, etc.  We need these assessments to strategically plan our reading minilessons and guided reading lessons so that we can move students forward as readers.  However, we do not need this information to put a label on students.  There are so many factors that go into if students are going to be successful with their independent reading book choices: motivation, background knowledge of topic, familiarity with genre, support at home, and the list goes on and on.  As teachers, we get levels to help us know where to instruct students and gain knowledge about their strengths and weaknesses as readers.  It is meant to be a teaching tool.  It was never meant to be a label for students so that they can only pick out of certain book bins in the classroom library, or a way they can compare their reading abilities to other students in the classroom.  Restricting students to read only at or near their level is not only dangerous for students with a lower reading level, but it's also dangerous for students with a higher reading level.  As teachers, if we're doing what we're supposed to be doing through our reading instruction, independent reading is only one piece of the puzzle when it comes to how students are developing as readers.  At different points throughout the school year, they should also be listening to books during interactive read aloud, being instructed at their level during guided reading, conferenced with about their independent reading books during reading conferences, and discussing grade level texts with small groups of students during literature circles.  If we're providing all of these contexts for reading instruction for our students, we do not need to worry if our highest readers are sometimes picking "easy" books or our lowest readers are sometimes picking "hard" books.

You know that story of the baby elephant who was always anchored into the ground with a stake and chain since he was little?  The one who grew to be a big, powerful creature and still thought a stake and chain would prevent him from being able to move.  Essentially, that is what we're doing to our students if we're telling them they can only read books from a certain level or a certain Lexile range.  Students are believing that's who they are as readers and settling for that.



Tip Four: Student Book Recommendations

Last school year, I started opening the floor up at the beginning of our reading minilessons for any students that wanted to quickly talk about a book they would recommend to the class.  It was extremely informal with students standing up, showing the book, and saying why they would recommend it.  I had always been the one to give book recommendations or show book trailers (which I still do).  What I noticed though when I sat back and observed was that students really took to what other students recommended.   Making book recommendations casual and fun showed other students that being a reader and liking books is what we do in this classroom.  It's not uncool to like to read.  I had certain students that gave more book recommendations than others across the year and some that never took up the opportunity, but I was astounded at the number of different 7th grade students in my classroom who stood up in front of their peers to give at least one book recommendation across the year.

Tip Five: Highlight "Hot Commodity" Books

In 1973 Johnny Carson caused a toilet paper shortage simply by joking about it and reading a newspaper clipping on the radio about it.  This, in turn, caused the media to pick up this story and cause an actual toilet paper shortage because of hoarding and panic when in fact, there was never a real toilet paper shortage in the first place.  The reason I bring up this proud moment in America's history is because I'm encouraging you to create a "toilet paper shortage" of sorts in your classroom through advertising hot commodity books.  Check out the picture below to see the four new bins I'm trying out on top of my classroom library this school year.  There is a bin for books new to our library, a bin of my book recommendations, a bin for books students recommend, and a bin for books students or I give book talks on.  These bins will create the attitude of books that are in high demand, which is exactly what I want my students to feel.  I want them to be as excited about the next book that they're going to read as they are about a new video game coming out.


As a last special note, if you're a content-area classroom teacher, it's time to start thinking about having a classroom library, too.  Slowly work on collecting picture books, nonfiction books, and novels that deal with content you talk about in your classroom.  Also, start collecting the most popular middle school novels and books you love that are your favorite so that you have books available whenever needed.

I hope these tips have been helpful for you.  Let me know below about what tips you're excited to try out in your classroom library this school year!
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August 21, 2016

Poetry Workshop

You know that collective sigh, the one that choruses around the room when you enthusiastically announce, "Class, the next unit we'll be entering into is poetry!"  If poetry is taught the right way, students should be cheering at the thought of a Poetry Workshop day.  Below I will outline the "why" of Poetry Workshop along with tips and tricks that I have picked up to make any poetry unit a raging success in your middle school classroom.

If you like what you read below and want to implement a Poetry Workshop in your classroom, make sure you check out the Poetry Workshop resource available in my TpT store.  This resource will walk you through every single step of implementing Poetry Workshop in your classroom, along with the assembly of a student Poetry Workshop binder that can be utilized across the entire school year.  Lesson plans, graphic organizers, grading rubrics, and so much more awaits you in this comprehensive resource.

Why Use Poetry Workshop?

*It’s a change of pace.  We immerse students so heavily into Reading Workshop and Writing Workshop day after day.  It’s nice to have the option to mix things up a bit with Poetry Workshop.  It is also a great transition between units.  For instance, maybe you’ve just completed a three-week persuasive writing unit and you’re about to head into a round of literature circles.  Take a day or two hiatus in between to do Poetry Workshop once the Poetry Workshop Kick-Off lessons are completed.  Poetry Workshop can serve as a natural transition between the big, heavy units throughout the whole school year.

*It will reach unexpected students.  You may have a pretty good idea right away of who in your class excels at writing or can already read college-level material, but you may be surprised at which students soar while writing poetry.  Poetry Workshop is a great way to hook in students who struggle or are unmotivated when it comes to reading and writing because it appears to be a manageable chunk.  The thought of writing a five-paragraph essay or reading a 300-page book scares them half to death, but reading or writing a poem may not seem as scary.

*It’s a great way to teach literary elements on a smaller scale.  Sometimes it’s too daunting for students to come up with the theme of an entire book, but starting out teaching theme through poetry is the perfect scaffold before teaching theme in relation to a novel.  The concept of theme will transfer perfectly between a poem and a book, but more students will understand the concept if you start teaching it through a poem all students understand and can easily read and reread.  The same goes for teaching figurative language.  Poetry is the perfect pathway to finding examples of figurative language and teaching them how to identify and use it.  Point of view is also a great lens to look at poems through and teach students about through poetry.

*It gets students to appreciate words and how words can evoke images.  Poets have a gift for saying a lot with only a few words.  It’s important that we’re teaching students how to be impactful writers in few words and make every word count.  A poet keeps his/her audience in mind and thinks about what emotions he/she would like the reader to feel.  Teaching-wise poetry allows so many pathways into teaching students about word choice, organization, sensory images, and audience awareness.

*Poetry removes the need for perfect capitalization and punctuation.  The poet gets to structure his/her poem how he/she wants to, and there is an art in playing around with punctuation and capitalization while writing a poem.  Releasing this pressure of having to write “right” will allow students to write freely and openly.


*A lot of times when we think about teaching poetry we think about having every student write a haiku, an “All About Me” poem, a name poem, a limerick, and then we call it good.  Students publish a few poems, and we call it good for the year.  This is not what Poetry Workshop is.  Poetry Workshop gets students to read poems, analyze poems, consider techniques poets use that they would want to use, and write their own poems once they feel comfortable doing so.  Teach students what poetry really is.  As teachers, sometimes I think we’re afraid of poetry ourselves and then default into teaching poetry through a set of “form” poems.  We hate it and are uncomfortable with it, so these views get passed right down to students.  Let’s shift this attitude!  Poetry can be a beautiful thing that teachers and students alike have a positive attitude about.

Tips for Teaching with Poetry Workshop:

Tip One: Teach Poetry in Phases

I was first introduced to the idea of teaching poetry in phases when I read Fountas and Pinnell's book, Guiding Readers and Writers.  Here's how I've taken the idea of phases and broken them down to work for my middle school students.

Phase One: Collecting & Responding  Have students read through poetry books or poetry websites, reading as many poems as they can.  If they come upon a poem that they really enjoy or relate to, they can copy the poem down.  I also like to have my students respond to the poems they write down in Phase One using prompts from the anchor chart below.

Phase One exposes students to poetry in a non-threatening way.  Students think about the poetry they enjoy.  As they copy down poems, they also have to focus on how the poet structured the poem, what letters they capitalized, and how they punctuated it.

Phase Two: Mimicking Techniques  This is where it gets fun.  Students now take techniques they've noticed other poets use and mimic these techniques to create poems of their own.  Take a look at the anchor chart below to get an idea of the types of techniques students could mimic.


Phase Three: Original Poetry  Students can now create poetry of their own choosing.  Give them the green light to let their creative spirits fly.  Also discuss with them what they've learned from the first two phases that will help them as they create poetry.  Check out the anchor chart below to see ideas for what makes a good poem.


Tip Two: Whole Class Poetry Stalking

I teach grammar in my classroom through pulling mentor sentences from our class interactive read aloud and have students "sentence stalk" the sentences by noticing everything the author did to construct that sentence.  I transferred this concept into our poetry unit by having students notice everything they could about a particular poem as shown below.

What has been great about poetry stalking is we have realized together words to use to describe poet's techniques.  It has also been a great way to show that poetry has flexible rules for capitalization, punctuation, and poem structure.  Not all poets construct their poems the same, but it's fun to infer why poets make the choices they do while writing poems.  Check out this website for a great list of poems to use with middle school students while sentence stalking.

Tip Three: Use Poetry Interactive Read Alouds

There are so many great books out there written in verse.  As you kick-off Poetry Workshop for the year with a poetry unit, consider doing a read aloud with one of the amazing book choices below to complement the work students are doing in Poetry Workshop.










Tip Four: Teach New Types of Poetry

Mix is up with your students by showing them poems different types of poems.  Three of my favorites are below.

Book Spine Poems: Give book boxes from your classroom library to students and have them create a book spine poem of their own.



Blackout Poems: Copy off pages from several different books and make photocopies, allow students to select one, and then have them black out the words they don't want leaving the words they'd like to use to create a poem.



Sandwich Poems: Students take the first and the last line from a poem they copied down during Collecting & Responding and write a poem filling in the middle.



Tip Five: Make Everyone a Poet


Show your students that everyone is and can be a poet, even you.  Model the work you complete alongside your students during Poetry Workshop.  Also, make sure you give plenty of time to have students share what they're doing in Poetry Workshop with one another.

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July 7, 2016

Six Reasons to Use Mentor Sentences to Build Student Writers

My first year of teaching I was handed grammar worksheets of concepts I was supposed to "cover" with my students.  As I paged through the worksheets I felt panic swell up in my chest because I didn't know what half of the words meant.  Was I not qualified for my position?  Was I going to fail my students by not being able to pass on grammar knowledge that I so obviously didn't possess?  My teaching journey for how to teach grammar has evolved a lot since that first day.  My first two years I found the answer keys, and I played along, and I taught all of the concepts I was supposed to teach.  However, it felt incredibly disconnected from what I was doing in the reading and writing aspect of teaching, where I was comfortable.  Slowly this evolved to forgetting grammar even existed and sweeping it under the rug.  I figured that I was a decent writer and didn't know any of this stuff, so why should my students have to know it?

Then, as I was training to be a literacy coach at Lesley University four years into my teaching career, an Interactive Edit was modeled to me and my fellow literacy coaches in training.  Our professor put a beautiful sentence up on the board from a book we had all read called The Tiger Rising, and she asked us the ever-powerful question of, "What do you notice?"  At first, I thought it was a trick, and I was looking for the error that she must have sneakily inserted.  I think this was a natural reaction from my elementary school days of repetitive DOL year, after year, after year.  But then, I realized her question was genuine, and I let myself actually enjoy the sentence, think about it, analyze it, and imagine what Kate DiCamillo was thinking as she wrote it.  Once we started listing what we noticed, we couldn't stop: we noticed word choice, the type of sentence it was, what type of punctuation and capitalization it contained, we commented on which words were which parts of speech, on words with prefixes, suffixes, and Greek & Latin roots, we talked about words that had homophones, and what the sentence would have been like if a specific element had been changed.  All of a sudden, I had learned more about grammar in fifteen minutes of analyzing one sentence than I had my entire life.  Not to mention, the experience had been enjoyable to me as a learner.  That was the day I knew Interactive Edit would be part of how I taught grammar.  A missing piece to a Balanced Literacy framework I already loved.

Next, I started reading Jeff Anderson's book Mechanically Inclined where chapter two, "Moving from Correct-Alls to Mentor Texts" continued to evolve how I saw grammar instruction.  In the chapter opening it states, "Yet as far back as 1936, the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) found that the formal teaching of grammar and mechanics had little effect on students' writing and, in fact, had deleterious effects when it displaced writing time.  Other teachers who know these methods don't work have fallen into haphazardly mentioning mechanics or, fearful of teaching grammar and mechanics out of context, teaching them only during the editing phase of the writing process" (15).  As I read that passage, I thought, "That's me!"  He also makes the point of, "With what we know about the brain absorbing information visually, is it a sane educational strategy to have kids stare at something so wrong for the first ten minutes of class every day?  Etching wrongness into my students' visual stores was not what I wanted" (16).  How profound is this thought?  Why are we using DOL to show kids how to do it wrong?  A sentence with ten errors is so far away from "real writing."  Instead, let's use mentor sentences from books students are reading and authors they respect to etch beautiful writing into their brains.  Anderson credits Vicki Spandel for the phrase, "sentence stalking" and talks in the chapter about how he became a sentence stalker, constantly reading for the purpose of finding worthy mentor sentences to use.  Although sentence stalking is the same as what I originally learned to be "interactive edit," I knew my students would love the term "sentence stalking."  This is where it all began, and I've never turned back from this form of teaching grammar since.


If you're wondering how to implement sentence stalking into your classroom, it's really quite simple:

Step One: Go through your class interactive read alouds or class novels all students in your class are exposed to and select sentences that will give your students a lot to talk about.  The sentences could focus in on something you're noticing students are struggling with in their writing, such as using correct homophones, for example.  That's a subtle way of reinforcing the proper use of homophones while also getting students to notice and analyze other pieces of the sentence as well.

Step Two:  Model to students how to "sentence stalk."  Begin with think alouds and give students a couple examples of what you notice about the sentence, and then have them turn to a partner and jot down three more things they notice together.  This is a great way to get the process started.

Step Three:  Once you're confident that students have become more proficient at sentence stalking, use it as a bell ringer activity and have the sentence up on the board as they're walking into class.  Students should know that it's the routine to grab their notebooks, jot the sentence down, and write down as many things as they notice about the sentence.

Step Four:  Continue to make the process interactive by having students share out what they notice in small groups or partners and then sharing out as a whole class.  Take time (one-two minutes) to quickly teach a new concept to students if something comes up in a sentence that students haven't noticed before.

Step Five:  Make anchor charts of common grammar concepts that come up.  A few of my favorites for the purpose of sentence stalking are below.  Another great option is to purchase the Student Writing Companion in my TpT store so students can have a quick reference to a variety of grammar concepts.





So now that I know what I know, I'm so excited to see what else I can learn and try with my students as I continue to tweak this teaching strategy.  Below are six reasons why I think using mentor sentences to sentence stalk is the way to go.

1.  Through mentor sentences, you can intrigue students and subconsciously get them interested in books.  A single sentence can cause students to wonder and predict what it means in the context of a story.

2.  Sentences in real writing and real books are messy.  They don’t always fit a perfect mold like sentences on a grammar worksheet or workbook.  Students can memorize a predictable pattern on a grammar worksheet, but by using mentor sentences, students are going to internalize, transfer, and apply these grammar concepts in their own writing.

3.  Mentor sentences expose students to quality writing and inspire them to try out techniques used by their favorite authors in their writing.

4.  Instead of standing up in front of the class and lecturing about grammar rules and telling students, “It’s just the way it is” in reference to memorizing grammar rules, you can stand up in front of the class and say, “Let’s look at what R.J. Palacio, Kate DiCamillo, or Lois Lowry does in this sentence.”

5.  Looking at mentor sentences from several books/authors proves to students that grammar rules are applied in a similar fashion in order for writers to communicate effectively with readers.


6.  When we appreciate the way authors craft sentences together and take the time to study how and why they write, we, as writers, will intentionally and automatically think more like the authors we study.

If you think teaching grammar through mentor sentences is a road you'd like to go down on your grammar teaching journey, definitely check out the six week unit I have listed below to teach six different grammar rules.  It includes directions on exactly how to teach each lesson, student handouts, and even answer keys.

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